California History Timeline, April 22 to April 29

April 22

Government in 1850
An Act for the Government and Protection of Indians was passed. It allowed Indians “peaceable to reside…” and protected white defendants from conviction of a crime based on testimony by an Indian in court.

Indian Grinding Rock State Historic Park.

Indian Grinding Rock State Historic Park.

Government in 1851
The legislature passed a Land Claims Act. It jeopardized the Mexican ownership of ranchos and other land deeded before statehood.

Rancho diseno

Rancho diseno

Newspapers in 1871
The Ventura Signal began publishing weekly, produced by Signal Publishing Co. in Santa Barbara.

July 4th Main Street parade in Ventura (1874). Courtesy of Los Angeles Public Library.

July 4th Main Street parade in Ventura (1874). Courtesy of Los Angeles Public Library.

Transportation in 1959
San Francisco opened the 1.4 mile extension of the Central Freeway from 13th and Mission to Golden Gate Ave. and Franklin St. 

San Francisco, Central Freeway (1959).

San Francisco, Central Freeway (1959).

Earth Day in 1970
The first Earth Day spawned events at thousands of U.S. colleges, elementary schools and community centers. It “brought 20 million Americans out into the spring sunshine for peaceful demonstrations in favor of environmental reform.” Now it is observed in 192 countries, and coordinated by the Earth Day Network.

Cynthia Waxman.

Cynthia Waxman.

Crime in 1978
Cynthia Waxman, age 11, was murdered while playing in a field in Moraga. DNA evidence in 2005 revealed she was killed by Charles Jackson, who died in Folsom Prison in 2002.

 

 

 

Geer 1978
Will Geer, film and television actor, died in Los Angeles at age 76. He is best known for playing Grandpa Zeb Walton on “The Waltons” (1972-1978).

Sports in 1981 
Fernando Valenzuela, Los Angeles Dodgers rookie pitcher, threw three shutouts in four starts, fanning “Fernando-mania.”

Fernando Valenzuela.

Fernando Valenzuela.

Hines in 1983
Earl Hines, jazz pianist and bandleader, died in Oakland age 79. The great pianist known as “Fatha” Hines was a major influence on the development of jazz.

Adams in 1984
Ansel Adams, photographer, died in Monterey at age 82. He was famous for his photographs of Yosemite Valley. Adams redefined the artistic standards and possibilities of landscape photography.

Joseph Gamsky, better known as Joe Hunt.

Joseph Gamsky, better known as Joe Hunt.

Crime in 1987
Joseph Gamsky, better known as Joe Hunt, leader of a Ponzi scheme called the “Billionaire Boys Club,” was convicted by a Santa Monica jury of murdering Ron Levin and sentenced to life in prison. 

Business in 1991
Intel Corp, in Santa Clara, released the 486SX chip.

Intel.

Intel.

Joshua Tree National Park.

Joshua Tree National Park.

Earthquakes in 1992
A 6.0 earthquake struck around Joshua Tree National Park.

 

Accidents in 1992
A plane crashed at Perris Valley Airport California, killing 16 skydivers and seriously injuring others.

Perris crash.

Perris crash.

Bombeck in 1996
Erma Bombeck, homemaker turned humorous newspaper columnist, died in San Francisco at age 69. Her columns were read twice a weekly by 30 million readers of the 900 newspapers in the U.S. and Canada. 

Crime in 2002
Robert Blake, actor, was charged with murder, solicitation of murder and conspiracy in the shooting death of his wife, Bonny Lee Bakley, outside a Los Angeles restaurant. Earle Caldwell, Blake’s bodyguard, was charged with conspiracy to commit murder. Both men pleaded innocent and both were acquitted at criminal trial. But Blake was later found liable in a civil trial.

Historic Irvine Ranch.

Historic Irvine Ranch.

Landmarks in 2008
The historic Irvine Ranch, some 40,000 acres of protected habitat, become the first California Natural Landmark. 

Business in 2010
Codexis, a Redwood City developer of biocatalysts for drug and biofuel production, launched its initial public offering at $13 per share. Codexis was founded in 2002 as a spin-out from drug developer Maxygen, which now owns about 21.3%.

Codexis.

Codexis.

Alicia Parlette.

Alicia Parlette.

Health in 2010
Alicia Parlette, a 28-year-old copy editor, died at U.C. San Francisco of cancer. Her diagnosis at age 23 led to “Alicia’s Story,” a 17-part series in The San Francisco Chronicle.

Business in 2012
Google, in Mountain View, launched Street View in Israel. The Internet giant said it was putting on show streets and sites of interest with its 360-degree street-level images.

Minerva Project.

Minerva Project.

Education in 2013
A new San Francisco company called the Minerva Project announced an annual $500,000 prize to one outstanding higher education teacher whose innovations led to extraordinary student learning experiences.

April 23

Exploration in 1792
Captain George Vancouver named Dragon Channel on the Mendocino coast. This dangerous place on the coast had been called Dragon Blocks and is a shipwreck site. During his four-and-a-half-year voyage of exploration and diplomacy, he would circumnavigate the globe, touch five continents and change the course of history.

Mendocino coast.

Mendocino coast.

John Charles Frémont

John Charles Frémont

Exploration in 1844
John Frémont, on his way east after inciting insurrection in California, named the Mojave River after the Mohave people. He met six  Mohave men traveling that day but they lived two mountain ranges away on the Colorado River.

Post offices in 1852
Santa Rosa, in Sonoma County, appointed Donald McDonald to be its first postmaster. 

Santa Rosa, New Post Office postcard (circa 1950).

Santa Rosa, New Post Office postcard (circa 1950).

Mail delivery in 1860 
When a Pony Express rider missed the boat at Benicia, Thomas Bedford, a 34-year-old stable keeper, was hired on the spot. He boarded the ferry with his horse but discovered his horse lost a shoe. So he borrowed a horse from Casemoro Briones, a blacksmith, and delivered the mail to the ferry at Oakland. The mail reached San Francisco 9 hours and 15 minutes from the time it left Sacramento.

Shirley Temple Black.

Shirley Temple Black.

Black in 1928
Shirley Temple, a child movie star in the 1930s, one of the most popular persons in America during the Great Depression, was born in Santa Monica. As an adult, Mrs Black entered politics and was twice an U.S. Ambassador.

Sports in 1969
Jerry West, Los Angeles Laker, scored 53 points as the Lakers edged the Boston Celtics in Game 1 of the NBA Finals, 120-118. West was nicknamed “Mr. Clutch” because he made big plays in clutch situations.

Crime in 1969
Sirhan Sirhan was sentenced to death for the assassination of Senator Robert Kennedy at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles on June 5, 1968.

Environment in 1988 
A drain valve was left open at the Shell Marsh in Martinez poured 10,000 barrels of oil into the marsh joining Peyton Slough. Shell cleaned the mess and paid $20 million in penalties. The marsh was purchased with part of the funds and turned into a regional park.

Sports in 1989
Kareem Abdul-Jabbar retired from the Los Angeles Lakers. He started in 1975 and at the time he retired, held records for the most points, most field goals made, most games and most minutes played in the NBA.

Sports in 1989 
Troy Aikman, born in West Covina, became the first player chosen in the NFL draft. He was selected by the Dallas Cowboys.

Nixon in 1994 
Mourners left red roses, burning candles and cards at the Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace in Yorba Linda in memory of the 37th president of the United States, who died the day before at age 81.

Science in 1997 
Doctors at the University of Southern California announced that a child was born in late 1996 to a 63-year-old woman on hormone therapy.

Accidents in 2002 
The Metrolink Train from Riverside to Orange County collided with a Burlington Northern Santa Fe freight train. Two people were killed, over 260 injured. The freight train failed to heed line signals.

Erdman in 2007        
Paul Erdman, world-class economist and banker, died in Sonoma County at age 74. He used his knowledge of economics and politics to write best-selling novels that included The Billion Dollar Sure Thing (1973) and The Crash of ‘79 (1976).

David Halberstam.

David Halberstam.

Halberstam in 2007   
David Halberstam, journalist and writer, died in a car crash in San Mateo at age 73. His books included The Best and the Brightest (1972) and The Powers That Be (1979).

Smuin in 2007       
Michael Smuin, ballet dancer, choreographer and theatre director, died in San Francisco at age 68. He co-founded and directed the Smuin Ballet. 

Foreclosure.

Foreclosure.

Foreclosures in 2008        
It was reported that home foreclosures in California and the San Francisco Bay Area soared over 300% during the first three months of 2008.

Crime in 2009        
California Attorney General Jerry Brown filed a securities fraud lawsuit against Wells Fargo & Co. for deceptively marketing a financial instrument to thousands of state investors who suffered losses of over $1.5 billion.

Wells Fargo Bank, San Francisco.

Wells Fargo Bank, San Francisco.

Apple Corp.

Apple Corp.

Business in 2013        
Apple Inc., in Cupertino, announced a return of $55 billion in cash to shareholders, boosted its quarterly dividend and allotted more cash for buybacks.

April 24

Government in 1861
Mono County was established from parts of Calaveras, Fresno and Mariposa counties. Parts of Mono territory were given to Inyo County in 1866. It is east of the Sierra Nevada between Yosemite National Park and Nevada. Bodie, a gold rush ghost town and now a California State Historic Park is in Mono County.

Mono County.

Mono County.

Music in 1891
Sarah Bernhardt performed at the San Francisco Grand Opera House. Called “the most famous actress the world has ever known,” Bernhardt was on a grand world theatrical tour traveling on a chartered steamship carrying the diva, her company, scenery and accoutrement.

Sarah Bernhardt, Sarony portrait (1891).

Sarah Bernhardt, Sarony portrait (1891).

Early San Francisco Cable Car on Clay Street, 1878. Photos: San Francisco History Center, SF Public Library.

Early San Francisco Cable Car on Clay Street, 1878. Photos: San Francisco History Center, SF Public Library.

Hallidie in 1900
Andrew Hallidie died in San Francisco. He is credited with inventing the cable car in 1873 and fathering the San Francisco cable car system. Both claims are disputed.

Transcontinental trips in 1908
Mr. and Mrs Jacob Murdock left Los Angeles driving their Packard on the first cross-country car trip. There were no gas stations so, in most cases, the fuel was purchased at department stores or mechanical workshops where it was stored in sealed canisters. They reached New York City in 32 days, 5 hours and 25 minutes.

Mr. and Mrs Jacob Murdock drove cross-county (1908).

Mr. and Mrs Jacob Murdock drove cross-county (1908).

Post offices in 1915
A U.S. post office opened at Universal City.

Universal Studios entrance.

Universal Studios entrance.

Camp Parks guard shack.

Camp Parks guard shack.

Television in 1962       
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology sent the first satellite relay of a television signal between Camp Parks, California and Westford, Massachusetts.

 

Sports in 1962
Sandy Koufax, Los Angeles Dodgers pitcher, threw 18 strikeouts against the San Francisco Giants. The Baseball Hall of Fame player tied the strikeout record set in 1938 by Bob Feller of the Cleveland Indians.

Sandy Koufax. Topps Baseball Card (1964).

Sandy Koufax. Topps Baseball Card (1964).

Los Angeles Lakers.

Los Angeles Lakers.

Sports in 1963
The Boston Celtics beat the Los Angeles Lakers for the 17th NBA Championship, 4 games to 2.

 

Sports in 1967
The Philadelphia 76ers beat the San Francisco Warriors for the 21st NBA Championship, 4 games to 2.

San Francisco Warriors.

San Francisco Warriors.

Frank Overton in "Star Trek" episode "This Side of Paradise" (1967).

Frank Overton in “Star Trek” episode “This Side of Paradise” (1967).

Overton in 1967        
Frank Overton, film and television actor, died in Pacific Palisades at age 49. His films included “The Dark At the Top of the Stairs” (1960).

Sports in 1978
Nolan Ryan, California Angels pitcher, struck out 15 Seattle Mariners batters. It was the 20th time he struck out 15 batters in a game. 

Nolan Ryan.

Nolan Ryan.

Golden State Warriors.

Golden State Warriors.

Sports in 1981 
The San Antonio Spurs blocked 20 shots by the Golden State Warriors to set a National Basketball Association record.

 

Earthquakes in 1984
The Morgan Hill Earthquake struck along the Calaveras fault, east of San Jose and north of Morgan Hill. It was felt over 46,000 square miles and caused over $7 million in damages.

Crime in 1995        
Gilbert Murray, 47-year-old California Forestry Association president, was killed by a mail bomb at his Sacramento headquarters. The bomb was from the Unabomber. 

Great Seal of California.

Great Seal of California.

Government in 2001        
California’s credit rating was downgraded by S&P for the 1st time since the recession of 1994.

 

Sports in 2004        
Vitali Klitschko stopped Corrie Sanders in the eighth round to win the World Boxing Council heavyweight title in Los Angeles.

Victoria Harrison.

Victoria Harrison.

Business in 2008        
U.C. Berkeley Police Chief Victoria Harrison, age 54, retired with a $2.1 million package then returned to the same job for more money.

Music in 2008        
The Grateful Dead band decided to give the group’s archives to the U.C. Santa Cruz library.

Grateful Dead.

Grateful Dead.

Robert Shearer.

Robert Shearer.

Crime in 2013        
Robert Shearer, San Francisco State University official, was charged with taking bribes for a waste-disposal contract that cost millions in additional dollars. Stephen Cheung, age 47, of Chemical Hazardous Material Technology was charged with 118 felonies, including commercial bribery.

April 25

Mexican War in 1846
Mexican forces defeated U.S. military in a skirmish along the Rio Grande called the Thornton Affair. The ambush and capture of Americans was a reason U.S. President James K. Polk declared war with Mexico.

There were 11 major battle of the Mexican American war the first one was the Thornton Affair (1846).

There were 11 major battle of the Mexican American war the first one was the Thornton Affair (1846).

Klamath County.

Klamath County.

Government in 1851
Klamath County was established. It was formed from Trinity County and covers the  northwestern part of the state. The Klamath and Salmon River Indian War (1855) and the  Bald Hills War (1858-1864) kept the area unsettled and the county dissolved in 1874. 

Government in 1851
Nevada County was formed. It is in the Sierra Nevada, known as the Gold Rush Mother Lode Country. The first long-distance telephone call was in Nevada County from French Corral to French Lake (1877).

Nevada County.

Nevada County.

Government in 1851
Placer County was established. It stretches from the Sacramento Valley to Lake Tahoe and is one of the fastest growing counties in California by population.

Placer County.

Placer County.

San Francisco welcomes the United Nations (1945).

San Francisco welcomes the United Nations (1945).

United Nations in 1945
The United Nations Conference on International Organization produced the United Nations Charter. Delegates from 50 Allied nations met in San Francisco.

Health in 1955        
Some children who received a polio vaccine were reported sick with the disease. Two batches of vaccine made by Cutter Laboratories of Berkeley were found to contain live polio virus.

RCA television (1961).

RCA television (1961).

Health in 1961       
San Francisco Giants baseball games began being broadcast on television.

Business in 1961
Robert Noyce was granted a patent for an integrated circuit, starting a legal battle with Jack Kilby over rights to the patent. Kilby invented one  version of the circuits. Noyce developed the silicon integrated circuit, which was more useful because machines could be much smaller.

The U.S. Patent Office issues Robert Noyce a patent for the integrated circuit (1961).

The U.S. Patent Office issues Robert Noyce a patent for the integrated circuit (1961).

Michael Andrew Clark (1965).

Michael Andrew Clark (1965).

Crime in 1965
Michael Andrew Clark, age 16, shot at cars traveling along Highway 101 south of Orcutt from a nearby hilltop. He killed three people and wounded ten before committing suicide when the police arrived.

Rogers in 1995        
Ginger Rogers, show business legend, died in Rancho Mirage at age 83. She danced and sang in films, on stage, radio, and television through five decades.

Dick Murphy.

Dick Murphy.

Government in 2005        
Dick Murphy, 62-year-old mayor of San Diego announced his resignation under the weight of criticism over his controversial election and failure to address the pension underfunding problem.

Science in 2007        
Joe DeRisi, U.C. San Francisco biochemist, announced finding genes of a spore producing parasite, Nosema ceranae, in dead bees. Spanish researchers had shown that the parasite can wipe out a beehive.

Joe DeRisi.

Joe DeRisi.

Bombings in 2008        
A bomb exploded at a San Diego FedEx building. Another bomb exploded at a San Diego courthouse on May 4. No one was injured in either. 

David Martin memorial swim.

David Martin memorial swim.

Shark attacks in 2008       
A shark killed David Martin, a 66-year-old triathlete, at Solano Beach near San Diego.

Arthur in 2009        
Beatrice Arthur, stage and television actress, died in Los Angeles at age 82. She was best known for roles in “Maude” (1972-1978) and “The Golden Girls” (1985-1992).

Fresno Police.

Fresno Police.

Crime in 2010        
Fresno police cracked down on gangs after three people were killed in separate shootings. In May police made some 648 arrests including 216 for felony offenses.

Health in 2012        
Following discovery of mad cow disease in a California dairy cow, South Korean retailers pulled U.S. beef from their stores. U.S. health authorities said the animal was never a threat to the nation’s food supply because the dead cow an atypical case of BSE. That meant a random mutation in the animal rather than infected cattle feed was the cause.

Dairy cows.

Dairy cows.

April 26

Nataqua Territory.

Nataqua Territory.

Government in 1856
Peter Lassen lead pioneers in the Susanville area to declare the independent territory of Nataqua in northeast California and western Nevada. It ended in a gun fight between Nataquans and a posse sent to collect taxes on February 15, 1863.

Crime in 1859
Peter Lassen was murdered. Lassen reached Mexican California around the same time as John Sutter and settled on a 22,206-acre rancho north of Sutter’s Fort. He established the Lassen Cutoff of the California Trail, which he falsely promoted as a short-cut. It resulted in much suffering and might have caused his murder.

Peter Lassen.

Peter Lassen.

Odd Fellows motto.

Odd Fellows motto.

Clubs in 1859
The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was established in San Francisco. Over time it supported a library, provided relief funds to individuals, welcomed dignitaries, buried the dead and aided communities during times of disaster.

Modoc War in 1873
U.S. Army Captain Thomas lead five officers, 66 troops and 14 Warm Spring Scouts into the lava beds chasing the Modocs in an effort to force them to return to the Klamath reservation. While they ate lunch, Modoc warriors attacked. Troops that did not flee were killed or wounded.

Government in 1938
Channel Islands National Monument was dedicated. Today Channel Islands National Park includes five islands and their ocean environment, preserving and protecting a wealth of natural and cultural resources.

Channel Islands.

Channel Islands.

San Francisco Warriors.

San Francisco Warriors.

Sports in 1964
The Boston Celtics beat the San Francisco Warriors in the 18th NBA Championship, 4 games to 1.

 

Transportation in 1971
The last San Francisco lightship was replaced by an automatic buoy. It marked the main shipping channels  to help guide ships into the Bay.

San Francisco lightship (circa 1896).

San Francisco lightship (circa 1896).

Michael Harrison (circa 1986).

Michael Harrison (circa 1986).

Science in 1981
Dr. Michael R. Harrison of U.C. San Francisco Medical Center performed the world’s first human open fetal surgery.

Government in 1983    
Diane Feinstein, then San Francisco Mayor, defeated a recall attempt by 81%. She proposed banning handguns in San Francisco and became subject to a recall attempt organized by the White Panther Party. 

Senator Dianne Feinstein.

Senator Dianne Feinstein.

April 27

Japanese American internment in 1942
Salinas Assembly Center, built on a rodeo grounds, opened. It was part of the forced detention of some 110,000 Californians of Japanese ancestry during World War II. Assembly centers were used to securely move people to the ten internment prisons.

Salinas Assembly Center. Evacuees of Japanese ancestry identify their luggage (1942).

Salinas Assembly Center. Evacuees of Japanese ancestry identify their luggage (1942).

Joseph "Dutch" Bowers.

Joseph “Dutch” Bowers.

Prisons in  1936        
Joseph “Dutch” Bowers, reportedly the first man to try to escape from Alcatraz prison, fell seventy feet to his death after being shot by a guard while climbing a fence.

Japanese American Internment in 1942  
The first Japanese American prisoners arrived at the Tanforan detention center south of San Francisco. People were held there for 169 days before being transferred to relocation camps. 

Tanforan Assembly Center (1942).

Tanforan Assembly Center (1942).

Cutter Incident (1955).

Cutter Incident (1955).

Health in 1955        
The U.S. government stopped using all Salk vaccine manufactured by Cutter Laboratories in Berkeley, pending investigation of 7 to 14 ill children inoculated with the company’s vaccine.

Race relations in 1963       
Marvin Sheldon, San Francisco real estate developer, said he wanted no African Americans in any of the homes he has built in Golden Gate Heights. He rejected a $39,950 offer by Wilt Chamberlain, star of the San Francisco Warriors, to buy a home.

Crime in 1995        
Robert Citron, former Orange County Treasurer, pleaded guilty to six counts of defrauding investors in the county investment pool. While he never profited personally, his actions were blamed for a $1.6 million loss, which caused the county to file for bankruptcy.

Robert Citron.

Robert Citron.

Ruth Handler.

Ruth Handler.

Handler in 2002        
Ruth Handler, co-founder of Mattel, Inc. of El Segundo, died in Los Angeles at age 85. She created the Barbie doll (1959).

Stein in 2008      
Hal Stein, jazz saxophonist and teacher, died in Oakland at age 79. His career spanned the swing and bebop eras of jazz.

Ernie Barnes.

Ernie Barnes.

Barnes in 2009        
Ernie Barnes, professional football player, actor, author and artist, died in Los Angeles at age 68. He was the official artist of the 1984 Olympic Games in Los Angeles.

April 28

Newspapers in 1849
The Placer Times was first published at Sacramento City.

Placer Times (1849).

Placer Times (1849).

Gold Rush in 1849
Samuel Brannan began ferry service to Mormon Island, one of the first gold mining camps. It was located where the North and South Forks of the American River come together. Today it is under Folsom Lake.

Mormon Island (circa 1853).

Mormon Island (circa 1853).

Grace Cathedral.

Grace Cathedral.

Churchs in 1850
Grace Episcopal Church of San Francisco was organized as a parish by the first regularly appointed Episcopal missionary to California. Today Grace Cathedral is an international pilgrimage center for church-goers and visitors.

Education in 1855
Santa Clara College, founded by Jesuits, is the oldest institution of higher education in the state. Today the university has 5,250 undergraduate and 3,270 graduate students.

University of Santa Clara logo.

University of Santa Clara logo.

Tule River War in 1856        
Yokut Indians repelled an attack on their land by some 100 would-be Indian fighters called “Petticoat Rangers.” The Tule River War in the southern San Joaquin Valley lasted six weeks.

California State Library.

California State Library.

Libraries in 1880
The California State Legislature approved an “Act to establish free public libraries and reading rooms…”  Today it is a research center for the state government and hub for all California public libraries. 

Fires in 1908       
A fire at a San Francisco stable killed 48 horses.

Bridges in 1937       
A ceremony marked the driving of the last rivet into the Golden Gate Bridge. A rivet gun destroyed a symbolic gold rivet so a steel rivet finished the job.

Sports in 1961
Warren Spahn, the Milwaukee Braves pitcher known as “Hooks,” threw his second no hitter at age 41 to beat the San Francisco Giants, 1-0.

Sports in 1966
The Boston Celtics beat the Los Angeles Lakers in the 20th NBA Championship, 4-3.

Accidents in 1973 
Thousands of bombs on 18 railroad cars, headed for the Vietnam War, exploded over 18 hours in the town of Antelope. Fifty-five hundred structures were damaged. The accident lead to passage of the Transportation Safety Act (1974).

Fernando Valenzuela.

Fernando Valenzuela.

Sports in 1985
Fernando Valenzuela, Los Angeles Dodgers pitcher, set a record for most consecutive innings at the start of a season without allowing an earned run (41) before the Padres ended the streak.

Radio in 1998        
Public Radio Inc. of San Francisco received a $185,000 National Endowment for the Arts grant to create “Lost and Found Sound: An American Record.” 

Lost and Found Sound.

Lost and Found Sound.

Mabel Teng.

Mabel Teng.

Government in 1998     
Mabel Teng, San Francisco Supervisor, announced that the Boy Scouts of America would be barred from taking part in a $500,000 city charity drive because it refused to admit gays. 

 

 

 

Calhoun in 1999        
Rory Calhoun, Western film star, died in Burbank at age 76. He starred in the 1950s TV series “The Texan.”

iTunes.

iTunes.

Business in 2003        
Apple, Inc., of Cupertino, launched the iTunes Music store. It became a media player, media library, online radio broadcaster, and mobile device management application that changed the music industry.

 

Science in 2006       
A U.C. Berkeley research team reported creating microscopic versions of compound eyes like those of insects.

Insect compound eye diagram.

Insect compound eye diagram.

Business in 2010       
Sempra Energy, parent company of San Diego Gas and Electric Co., agreed to pay $410 million to settle claims that it played Enron-style games with California’s electricity market during the 2000-2001 energy crises.

Palm Pilot.

Palm Pilot.

Business in 2010        
Palm Inc. , of Sunnyvale, agreed to be bought out by Hewlett-Packard Co., of Palo Alto, for about $1.4 billion in cash. It helped originate the smart phone with its Palm Pilot “personal digital assistants.”

April 29

Exploration in 1769
The San Carlos arrived in San Diego Bay after more than 100 days at sea from Mexico. It was one of Spanish explorer Gaspar de Portolá’s ships that founded a colony in San Diego. Due to a map error by Vizcaíno in 1602, the ship landed at the future site of Los Angeles before returning south.

John Charles Frémont

John Charles Frémont

Exploration in 1844
On his return East after trying to incite revolt against Mexico in Alta California, John Frémont named Hernandez Spring in memory of a Mexican traveler murdered here. Mormon immigrants changed the name to Resting Spring in the 1850’s.

 

Tule River War in 1856 
During the Tule River War, Yokut Indians repelled a second attack by the ‘Petticoat Rangers,’ a band of civilian Indian fighters at Four Creeks. The Yokuts lived along the shores of Tulare Lake in the Central Valley, which disappeared by 1900 due to water diversion and farming.

Indians of southern California

Indians of southern California

San Francisco Presidio in 1816

San Francisco Presidio in 1816

Forts in 1857 
The U.S. Army Pacific Division Headquarters were established at the San Francisco Presidio. Congress decommissioned it and transferred the land to the National Park Service on October 1, 1994.

Hearst in 1863
William Randolph Hearst was born in San Francisco. He built the nation’s largest newspaper chain. He promoted “”yellow journalism,” sensationalized stories of questionable truth.

William Randolph Hearst.

William Randolph Hearst.

Television in 1953
The first U.S. experimental 3D television broadcast showed an episode of “Space Patrol” on KECA-TV in Los Angeles.

Cinerama.

Cinerama.

Movies in 1953
The first Cinerama movie theater opened in Los Angeles. It had a deeply curved screen that extended into the auditorium. 

 

Pfeiffer in 1958 
Michelle Pfeiffer, actress, was born in Santa Ana. She is best known for roles in “Scarface”  (1983), “Batman Returns” (1992) and “Hairspray” (2007).

Radio in 1963 
KRE-AM in Berkeley changed its call letters to KPAT. KPAT changed back to KRE in 1972 then became KBLX in 1986 then KBFN in 1989 and back to KBLX in 1990. The current call letters, KVTO, were adopted in 1994. It broadcasts a Chinese format.

KBLX.

KBLX.

Byrds at the Fillmore West (1967).

Byrds at the Fillmore West (1967).

Music in 1971 
Bill Graham closed the Fillmore in San Francisco and the Fillmore East in New York, legendary concert halls. He was angry about greed in the music industry. He soon changed his mind and put on shows with Led Zeppelin, the Allman Brothers, Pink Floyd, the Who and the Grateful Dead. 

 

 

Hitchcock in 1980 
Alfred Hitchcock, legendary film director, died in Bel Air at age 78. His films set in California include “Rebecca” (1940), “Shadow of a Doubt” (1943), “Vertigo” (1958) and “The Birds” (1963).

Los Angeles Public Library fire (1986).

Los Angeles Public Library fire (1986).

Libraries in 1986
Los Angeles Public Library burned. A fire at the Central Library damaged or destroyed some 400,000 books and other items.

Environment in 1988 
Moloko, the first California condor chick conceived in captivity, was born in the San Diego Zoo.

California condor chick.

California condor chick.

Flight in 1990 
The space shuttle Discovery landed safely at Edwards Air Force Base after a mission which included deploying the Hubble Space Telescope.

Riots in 1992
Riots started in Los Angeles when LA Police Department officers accused of beating Rodney King were acquitted. Over the next three days fifty-three people were killed, 2,300 injured and an some $717 million in property damaged. 

Radio in 1996 
Howard Stern Radio Show premiered on KFRR 104.1 FM in Fresno.

Google.

Google.

Business in 2004 
Google, in Mountain View, unveiled an IPO, Initial Public Offering, that sold nearly $3 billion in stock.

Environment in 2004 
Cleanup crews arrived at Suisun Marsh to tackle an estimated 60,000 gallon diesel fuel spill from a pipeline operated by Kinder Morgan Energy Partners of Houston, Texas.

Suisun Marsh.

Suisun Marsh.

Apple Corp.

Apple Corp.

Business in 2005 
Apple, Inc., in Cupertino, began selling the Tiger operating system, OS X version 10.4, for the Mac computer.

Rock slides in 2006 
A rock slide at Ferguson Ridge, 8 miles west of El Portal, shut down the Highway 140 connection to Yosemite National Park.

Timelines in 2010
ChronoZoom was announced and demonstrated at U.C. Berkeley. The free interactive zoomable timeline included the history of everything. 

ChronoZoom.

ChronoZoom.

Pleasant Valley State Prison.

Pleasant Valley State Prison.

Prisons in 2013 
Sixty-two prisoners reportedly died in California from 2006 through 2013 after coming down with a fungal infection called valley fever. The federal manager of health care in the state’s prisons ordered 3,300 inmates transferred from Pleasant Valley and Avenal, which had the highest rates.

 

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